1. Is acquainted with the global role of ice sheets and glaciers in the climate system.
2. Has a basic knowledge of polar meteorology, the micro-climate of mountain glaciers, and the processes that regulate the exchange of energy and mass between atmosphere and glacier surface.
3. Understands the physical laws that govern the deformation and flow of ice, is able to carry out simple manipulations with these laws, and is familiar with some analytical solutions describing the equilibrium profile of ice sheets and ice shelves.
4. Has an overview of the various approximations and numerical techniques used in ice-sheet modelling.
5. Is acquainted with the Pleistocene glacial cycles and has an overview of the processes that are important in causing/regulating these cycles (orbital insolation changes, varying greenhouse gas concentrations, ocean circulation, geodynamics, sea-level changes
Glaciers and ice sheets: basic concepts; Ice deformation, stress and strain, constitutive relation; Perfect plasticity; Thermodynamics; Sliding, calving; Simple analytical models of glaciers and ice sheets; Numerical models; Mass balance, microclimate of glaciers; The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets; Ice sheets, geodynamics and sea level; Climatic interpretation of glacier fluctuations; Climatic information from ice cores; Ice sheets and the long-term evolution of climate.