Please note: the information in the course manual is binding.
To provide an understanding of the physical properties and mineralogical structure of important mineral phases, from the Earth’s surface to its core. At every level, the physical/chemical background to processes that control the mineralogy and structure is given, together with relevant practicals, to provide a solid understanding. By the end of the course students are expected to know which processes govern the stability, transformation and transport of the materials examined, including phase transformations, thermo-kinetic and interfacial processes. Students will be provided with an introduction to the techniques of observation and analysis for these processes. Surface processes involving aqueous fluids will be discussed, as well as those controlling deeper Earth structures (mantle/core) and their planetary origins.
Mineralogy of the Core and Mantle:|
Origin/structure of the Earth (meteorites)
Phase transitions in the mantle (thermodynamics/phase diagrams)
Mineral stability (observation and prediction)
Olivine to perovskite, SiO2 minerals.
Physical background: Atomic structure of crystal, solid state - band theory, optical/electronic interactions, heat capacity, thermal and electronic/ionic conductivity, diffraction, defects and colour centres.
Techniques: Electron microscopy, high pressure/temperatue experimental methods using Diamond and multi- anvil cells.
Pressure, temperature, time and transformation:
Physical background: Transport properties, diffusion of matter and heat, thermal activation - Boltzmann distribution, diffusion profiles, stranded profiles, nucleation.
Techniques: X-ray diffraction, Infra-red and Raman spectroscopy (vibrational spectroscopy).
Mineral growth, crystallization and surface interaction:
Mineral/fluid and mineral/atmosphere interactions. Crystal nucleation and growth.
Weathering and alteration by aqueous fluids. Clay minerals
Physical background: interfacial properties, surface energy, capillary pressure, wetting, colloids, charged interfaces, point of zero charge, surface conductivity, grain boundaries +/- fluids, Nernst-Einstein relation, behaviour of water.
|Je moet voldoen aan de volgende eisen|
- Alle onderstaande cursussen zijn behaald
- AW-Basis Wiskunde/Fysica (GEO1-1120)
- AW-voortgezette Wiskunde/Fysica (GEO1-1121)
- AW-Chemistry of the Earth (GEO1-1122)
- AW-Mineralen en magma's (GEO2-1205)
Voorkennis kan worden opgedaan met
|Mineralogie jaar 2 en wiskunde en scheikunde jaar 1|
Bronnen van zelfstudie
|geo2-1205, geo1-1120, geo1-1122.|
|Examples used in the lectures throughout the course can be found in the recommended textbook. Appropriate sections related to individual lectures will be given. When material is not covered by the textbook students will be provided with information about recommended reading materials that can be accessed through the library’s electronic journals selection.||Verplicht materiaal|
|A. Putnis, Introduction to Mineral Sciences, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992 (ISBN 0-521-42947-1 paperback) ±Euro 50|
|Manual/handouts en artikelen (nader aan te geven), via WebCT/Blackboard UU, as 'pdf-files'.|
|G.L.Squires, Practical Physics 4th Ed. Cambridge Univ. Press (ISBN 0-521-77940-5 paperback): Euro 39.|
|Mary Anne White, Properties of Materials, Oxford University Press, 1999 (ISBN 0-19-511331-4 paperback): ±Euro 50|
|A.R. Philpotts and J.J. Ague, Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, 2nd Ed. 2009 Cambridge Univ. Press (ISBN 978-0-521-88006-0 hardcover) ±Euro 48|Werkvormen
AlgemeenLecture material provides background knowledge required for the skills training within the practical sessions. Lectures will also contain some interactive sections/demonstrations of critical concepts that may also be part of the examined material used in the final assessment of the course. Therefore, attendance at both is required.
Voorbereiding bijeenkomstenHandouts of the lecture notes will be available on the blackboard online platform before the lectures. This includes a slide of related sections within the course textbook, or information for online searches, for background reading.
Voorbereiding bijeenkomstenShort practical preparation quizzes with related content to watch or read will be used to refresh the student’s knowledge of key concepts taught in entry requiremeent courses. These will be available on the online blackboard learning platform up to 1 week prior to the scheduled practical class.
Bijdrage aan groepswerkIn the practical classes students will examine materials in hand specimen as well as using petrographic microscopes, conduct small experiments and analyse data generated by the techniques introduced in the lectures. During these classes students will be expected to work in pairs to small groups, however, individual reports of the practical work is required.
BeoordelingFinal exam (60%); course work (40%).