
Please note: the information in the course manual is binding.
This course will introduce you to the basic concepts, principles and methods of physical chemistry that are used to characterize the properties of earth materials and to study equilibrium states and the direction of chemical and morphological transformations in earth systems.
By the end of the first part of the course you will understand the basic concepts of the classical macroscopic approach to equilibrium thermodynamics. You will be able to apply the related equations to calculate changes in state variables characterizing the systems upon (i) exchange of heat and work between the system and its surrounding, (ii) chemical reactions and (iii) mixing of constituents. Based on these you will be able to evaluate whether a system is in equilibrium, whether a process is reversible or irreversible and whether it can or cannot occur spontaneously. Also you will be able to apply the concepts to describe, understand, and predict phenomena in earth systems including: air movement in the atmosphere, formation of solid solutions, and mineral transformations during metamorphism.
In the second part of the course you will become familiar with the concepts of the microscopic approach to equilibrium thermodynamics, including basics of quantum and statistical mechanics. You will understand how and why material's internal energy, entropy and heat capacity depend on temperature, and will be able to calculate their values for a range of materials, including gases and simple solids, using only the microscopic properties of their atomic or molecular constituents.



The course is organized in two parts. In the first part, the basic concepts of the classical macroscopic approach to equilibrium thermodynamics will be introduced. In the second part, a microscopic approach will be presented in order to understand the properties of materials and systems based on the knowledge of individual atoms and molecules and their interaction. Following topics will be discussed:
 Macroscopic approach
 Heat versus work
 The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
 Thermochemistry, Carnot Cycle, Entropy
 Gibbs and Helmholtz Energies
 NonElectrolyte and Electrolyte Solutions
 Chemical Equilibrium
 Microscopic approach
 Atomic structure of materials
 Basics of quantum mechanics: structure of available energy levels
 Basics of statistical mechanics: micro versus macrostates, equipartition theorem, Boltzmann's definition of entropy
 Boltzmann, FermiDirac and BoseEinstein distribution
 Heat capacity of gases and solids
Development of Transferable Skills
 Ability to work in the team: Conceptual questions are discussed in groups and answers have to prepared in the form of Wikis as a group effort.
 Problem solving: students learn how problems in Earth Sciences can be approached and solved using principles from thermodynamics.
 Verbal communication skills: students have to learn to explain thermodynamic principles, which is practiced in group discussion and assessed in oral examinations.
 Analytical / quantitative skills: Students learn to carefully solve quantitative, thermodynamic problems.




 CompetentiesIngangseisenVoorkennis• Basic knowledge in mathematical calculus • Basic concepts in chemistry and physics 
  Verplicht materiaalBoekR. Chang (2000) Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences (3rd ed.). University Science Books, Sausalito, CA. ISBN 1891389068 
 BoekL. Polerecky (2014), Introduction to statistical mechanics. Reading material for the course Fysische Chemie GEO2–1202. Available for download via Blackboard. 
 ArtikelenAdditional reading material, which includes Earth Science applications, is available via Blackboard. Links posted during the course. 

 Aanbevolen materiaalArtikelenYou might also consider following the open courseware lectures offered by MIT or Yale university (links on Blackboard). 

 WerkvormenToetsenEindresultaatWeging   100 
Minimum cijfer    
BeoordelingThe final grade is calculated from the result of the digital assignments (30%) and the grades of the two oral examinations (2 x 35%).
Conditions for passing the course are: at least 5.5 for the final grade and at least 5.5 for the second oral examination.
See also course guide. Aspecten van academische vorming • Academisch denken, werken en handelen • Intellectuele vaardigheden • Gebruiken van informatie en communicatietechnologie ('computer literacy') • Planmatig werken • Organisatorische vaardigheden • Numerieke vaardigheden • Beheersen van methoden en technieken 


 