Is to provide an understanding, of the physical properties and mineralogical structure of the important mineral phases, from the Earth’s surface to its core. At every level, the physical/chemical background, to processes which control the mineralogy and structure, is given in parallel, together with relevant practicals, to provide a solid understanding. Processes which govern the stability, transformation and transport of these materials are studied, including phase transformations, thermo-kinetic and interfacial processes, with introduction to the techniques of observation and analysis. Surface procesess involving aqueous fluids will be discussed, as well as those controlling deeper Earth structures (mantle/core) and their planetary origins. This third year, level 3, "extravakken GGG (profileringsruimte)", course should appeal to GG, GC and GF students alike.
Mineralogy of the Core and Mantle:|
Origin/structure of the Earth (meteorites)
Phase transitions in the mantle (thermodynamics/phase diagrams)
Mineral stability (observation and prediction)
Olivine to perovskite, SiO2 minerals, Sulphides
Physical background: Atomic structure of crystal, solid state - band theory, optical/electronic interactions, heat capacity, thermal and electronic/ionic conductivity, diffraction, Electron microscopy, defects and colour centres. HPT experimental methods: Diamond and multi- anvil cells.
Pressure, temperature, time and transformation:
Physical background: Transport properties, diffusion of matter and heat, thermal activation - Boltzmann distribution, diffusion profiles, stranded profiles, nucleation.
Mineral growth, crystallization and surface interaction:
Mineral/fluid and mineral/atmosphere interactions. Crystal nucleation and growth.
Weathering and alteration by aqueous fluids. Clay minerals
Physical background: interfacial properties, surface energy, capillary pressure, wetting, colloids, charged interfaces, point of zero charge, surface conductivity, grain boundaries +/- fluids, Nernst-Einstein relation, AFM, behaviour of water.
|Je moet voldoen aan de volgende eisen|
- Alle onderstaande cursussen zijn behaald
- AW-Chemistry of the Earth (GEO1-1122)
- Basic Mathematics/Physics (GEO1-1120)
- Advanced Mathematics/Physics (GEO1-1121)
- Minerals & magma's (GEO2-1205)
Voorkennis kan worden opgedaan met
|Mineralogie jaar 2 en wiskunde en scheikunde jaar 1|
Bronnen van zelfstudie
|geo2-1205, geo1-1120, geo1-1122.||Verplicht materiaal|
|A. Putnis, Introduction to Mineral Sciences, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992 (ISBN 0-521-42947-1 paperback) ±Euro 50|
|Manual/handouts en artikelen (nader aan te geven), via WebCT/Blackboard UU, as 'pdf-files'.|
|G.L.Squires, Practical Physics 4th Ed. Cambridge Univ. Press (ISBN 0-521-77940-5 paperback): Euro 39.|
|Mary Anne White, Properties of Materials, Oxford University Press, 1999 (ISBN 0-19-511331-4 paperback): ±Euro 50|
|A.R. Philpotts and J.J. Ague, Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, 2nd Ed. 2009 Cambridge Univ. Press (ISBN 978-0-521-88006-0 hardcover) ±Euro 48|Werkvormen
Voorbereiding bijeenkomstenHandouts of the lecture notes will be available on the blackboard online platform before the lectures. This includes a slide of related sections for background reading. Short practical preparation quizzes with related content to watch or read will be used to refresh the student’s knowledge of key concepts. These will be available on the online blackboard learning platform up to 1 week prior to the scheduled practical class.
Bijdrage aan groepswerkIn the practical classes students will examine materials in hand specimen as well as using petrographic microscopes, conduct small experiments and analyse data generated by the techniques introduced in the lectures. During these classes students will be expected to work in pairs to small groups, however, individual reports of the practical work is required.
BeoordelingFinal exam (60%); course work (40%).